January 2017: Science of Suicidality (SOS)
T. E. Ellis, K. A. Rufino, & J. G. Allen.
This study assesses the impact of the Collaborative Assessment and Management of Suicidality (CAMS) on both general and suicide-specific measures relative to a matched comparison group at 6-months following hospital discharge. The authors used a nonrandomized, naturalistic, controlled comparison study design to investigate a sample of 104 participants (52 treated by CAMS-trained therapists and 52 with treatment as usual) at the Menninger Clinic with an average 59.5-day length of stay. The C-SSRS, PHQ-9, WHO-5, and WHODAS were used for data collection. The authors report differences in outcomes favoring the CAMS intervention at discharge from the Clinic were no longer statistically significant at 6-months post-discharge.
M. Panagioti, I. Angelakis, N. Tarrier, & P. Gooding.
This study investigated the predictive effects of the three specific PTSD symptom clusters (re-experiencing symptom cluster, avoidance / numbing symptom cluster, and hyperarousal symptom cluster) on suicidal ideation occurring 13 to 15 months later. The authors investigated a sample of 56 individuals who reported current or lifetime PTSD. They report the hyperarousal symptom cluster significantly predicted suicidal ideation at follow-up whilst controlling for baseline suicidal ideation, severity of depressive symptoms, and perceptions of defeat and entrapment.
M. L. Rogers, B. Chiurliza, C. R. Hagan, M. Tzoneva, J. L. Hames, M. S. Michaels, M. J. Hitschfeld, B. A. Palmer, T. W. Lineberry, D. A. Jobes, & T. E. Joiner.
This study explored the relationship between scores from rating scales which contained factors described as part of the Acute Suicidal Affective Disturbance (ASAD) construct. The authors investigated two samples of patients (343 outpatients receiving psychological services at a university-affiliated clinic and 7,698 consecutively-admitted psychiatric inpatients at Mayo Clinic Rochester – Saint Marys Campus). They report results of a confirmatory factor analysis supported the unidimensional nature of the ASAD construct. However, they freely admit, their study used cross-sectional data and did not use a standardized measure of ASAD. As a consequence, they are unable to report whether the symptoms of the subjects fulfilled criteria for ASAD.
*** Impulse Attack Suicidality Disorder (IASD) is a construct in some ways similar to ASAD. Harm Research Press (the publisher of the Science of Suicidality), Harm Research Institute (the owner of the website on which the Science of Suicidality is published), the editor of the Science of Suicidality, and the owners of Harm Research own or receive proceeds from the sale and / or use of a Phenotypic Suicidality Disorders Classification System which includes IASD.
Y. Kitagawa, S. Ando, S. Yamasak, J. C. Foo, Y. Okazaki, S. Shimodera, A. Nishida, F. Togo, & T. Sasaki.
This investigated the association between appetite loss and suicidal ideation and self-harm in adolescents. The authors studied rates of suicidal ideation or self-harm and of appetite-loss among 18,018 Japanese junior and senior high school students (aged 12-18) using a self-report questionnaire. The odds ratios (ORs) for suicidal ideation and self-harm were 5.5 and 4.1 for adolescents with appetite loss compared to those without it, respectively. They recommend that adolescents reporting physical symptoms such as loss of appetite or insomnia should be given careful attention for the potential of suicidality and / or self-harm.
M. Pompili, M. Vichi, E. Dinelli, D. Erbuto, R. Pycha, G. Serafini, G. Giordano, P. Valera, S. Albanese, A. Lima, B. De Vivo, D. Cicchella, Z. Rihmer, A. Fiorillo, M. Amore, P. Girardi, & R. J. Baldessarini.
This study explored the association between arsenic concentrations in 145 drinking water samples from 104 provinces in Italy and death rates due to natural causes and death rates from suicide. Their findings suggest that exposure to low concentrations of arsenic in drinking water might be associated with an unexpected, apparent “protective effect” against suicide, as has been reported with trace concentrations of lithium in some studies of drinking water. They recommend future studies to better understand the relationship between arsenic levels in the drinking water and rates of death by suicide.
N. A. Kimbrel, A. R. Newins, E. A. Dedert, E. E. Van Voorhees, E. B. Elbogen, J. C. Naylor, H. R. Wagner, M. Brancu, J. C. Beckham, & P. S. Calhoun.
This study examined the association between lifetime Cannabis Use Disorder (CUD), current suicidal ideation, and lifetime history of suicide attempts in a diverse sample of 3,233 Iraq/Afghanistan-era veterans using the Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire, the Combat Exposure Scale, and the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation. The authors report CUD was associated with both current suicidal ideation (OR = 1.683, p = 0.008) and lifetime suicide attempts (OR = 2.306, p < 0.0001), even after accounting for the effects of sex, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, depression, Alcohol Use Disorder, non-cannabis drug use disorder, history of childhood sexual abuse, and combat exposure. They recommend future studies to better understand the relationship between CUD and suicidality.
M. Balestri, R. Calati, A. Serretti, A. M. Hartmann, B. Konte, M. Friedl, I. Giegling, & D. Rujescu.
This study looked at the potential modulation of MAOA and MAOB Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) on personality traits in a sample of suicide attempters and healthy subjects using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). The authors investigated a sample of 108 suicide attempters and 286 healthy participants. They report that MAOA and MAOB SNPs seemed to be involved in the modulation of some TCI personality traits, particularly traits related to anxiety, and may be underpinnings for an endophenotype of the genetic component of suicidal behavior.
T. M. Murphy, B. Crawford, E. L. Dempster, E. Hannon, J. Burrage, G. Turecki, Z. Kaminsky, & J. Mill.
This study assessed genomewide patterns of DNA methylation in two cortical brain regions (BA11 and BA25) obtained from depressed suicide completers (n = 20) and matched non-psychiatric, sudden-death controls (n = 20). The authors report this is the most extensive methylomic study of depressed suicide completers using post-mortem brain tissue to date. They identified a differentially methylated region, upstream of the PSORS1C3 non-coding gene, which is consistently hypomethylated across both cortical brain regions in MDD suicide cases compared with controls. They identified discrete modules of co-methylated loci associated with polygenic risk burden for suicide attempt, but not major depression.
L. Shannonhouse, Y. D. Lin, K. Shaw, & M. Porter.
This study investigated the impact of Applied Suicide Intervention Skills Training (ASIST) on a trainee’s (a) suicide intervention skills; (b) attitudes toward suicide; (c) knowledge of suicide; and (d) comfort, competence, and confidence in responding to individuals at risk of suicide. The authors studied a sample with 104 school personnel who completed ASIST and 45 controls of similar school personnel. They report a significant positive effect for training on all measures.