Sheehan – Global Improvement Scales (S-CGI and S-PGI)

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About the Sheehan – Global Improvement Scales (S-CGI and S-PGI)
License Agreements for Use of the S-CGI or S-PGI
Training for the S-CGI or S-PGI
Translations and Linguistic Validation of the S-CGI or S-PGI
How to Cite the S-CGI or S-PGI


About the Sheehan – Global Improvement Scales (S-CGI and S-PGI)

The Sheehan – Global Improvement Scales exist in a clinician rated format (S-CGI) and in a patient rated format (S-PGI).  These 21-point global improvement scales were designed as more sensitive outcome measures than the old standard 7-point CGI-I Scale (Clinician Global Impressions – Improvement) and the related 7 point PGI-I (Patient Global Impressions – Improvement), which were developed during the early PRB Collaborative Schizophrenia treatment studies. (ECDEU Assessment Manual. US Dept. of Health Education and Welfare. W. Guy. Editor. NIMH Psychopharmacology Research Branch 1976 Washington DC).  Since the original design of the 7-point CGI-I, research needs and treatment outcome expectations require greater sensitivity.

Each new generation of treatments brings incremental improvements over earlier treatments.  It is necessary to be able to detect such differences globally. The 21-point S-CGI and S-PGI have 10 points of improvement and 10 points of deterioration compared to baseline, while the original CGI-I has only 3 points of improvement and 3 points of deterioration compared to baseline.  This spread in the original CGI-I is not sufficiently sensitive to detect either small increments of improvement or small differences between treatments.  Such differences can be clinically meaningful.  For example, both a 40% and a 60% improvement are rated as “moderate” or a score of 2 on the old CGI-I whereas the S-CGI and S-PGI detect these as quite different.  Clinicians, researchers and pharmaceutical companies are increasingly interested in differences in efficacy among the many treatments available and between efficacy at different doses.

Scales designed using a discretized visual-analog format (like the S-CGI and S-PGI) appear to be more sensitive than scales that adhere to categorical response options like the old CGI-I.  Discretized visual-analog scales use numerical, verbal and visual-spatial modes simultaneously in capturing a response, thereby anchoring the response more precisely and gaining sensitivity.

For more information about the design and logic behind Discan Metrics in rating scales such as the SDS, the SIS, the S-STS CMCM, the SIAS, the S-HTS CMCM, and the HIAS see citation 1 in How to Cite The SDS (click here).

For any scientific questions relating to the S-CGI or S-PGI, contact David V Sheehan MD MBA directly by email at: davidvsheehan@gmail.com

To view a copy of the S-CGI and S-PGI (click here)

To purchase and download a copy of the S-CGI and S-PGI (click here)


License Agreements for Use of the S-PGI or S-CGI

To license any version of the S-PGI or S-CGI for Use in a Study or for a Healthcare System:

  • To License the Paper / PDF Version for Use in a Research Study with Grants >$50,000 or for a Pharmaceutical Company – There is a charge of $1 per single administration (not per patient enrolled) per version used (clinician-rated or patient rated). The amount is payable in full before study initiation.  (click here to download this license agreement)
  • To License the Paper / PDF Version for Use in a Research Study with Grants <$50,000 – The S-CGI and S-PGI are available free of charge to undergraduate and graduate students and for academic colleagues for educational use and for use in a small study with less than $50,000 funding as long as it is properly cited and proper copyright attribution is given on any study documents.  (click here to download this license agreement)
  • To License the Paper / PDF Version for Use in a Healthcare System – There is a charge of $1 per single administration (not per patient) per version used (clinician-rated or patient rated). The amount is payable in full before use.  (click here to download this license agreement)
  • To LicenseComputerized / Electronic / Mobile or Tablet App Version for Use – contact akozsuch@nviewhealth.com

Training for the S-CGI or S-PGI

For information about training on the S-CGI or S-PGI, please contact: davidvsheehan@gmail.com


Translations and Linguistic Validation of the S-CGI or S-PGI

Mapi (http://www.mapigroup.com) is the official translation and linguistic validation service for all variants of the S-CGI and S-PGI.

MAPI Language Services is the exclusive coordinating center to ensure the production of consistent and conceptually equivalent translations of the S-CGI or S-PGI and to provide linguistic validation and certification of these translations and should be contacted directly for this purpose.  MAPI Language Services may charge its own usual fees for this work.

Marie-Sidonie Edieux

MAPI Research Trust

27 Rue de la Villette

69003 Lyon France

PROinformation@mapigroup.com

tel: +33 (0)4 72 13 66 67

fax: +33 (0)4 72 13 66 68/ :+33 (0)4 72 13 69 50


How to Cite the S-CGI or S-PGI

Use the following citations in referencing the S-CGI or the S-PGI:

  1. Sheehan DV, Raj BA, Sheehan KH, Soto S, Knapp E. The relative efficacy of high dose buspirone and alprazolam in the treatment of panic disorder – A double-blind placebo-controlled study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 1993; 88(1): 1-11. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.1993.tb03405.x
  2. Sheehan DV, and Giddens JM. Harm Research Institute. Sheehan – Global Improvement Scales (S-CGI and S-PGI). Retrieved January 7th, 2017 from: http://harmresearch.org/index.php/about-us/david-v-sheehan-md-mba/sheehan-scales-and-structured-diagnostic-interviews/sheehan-global-improvement-scales-s-cgi-and-s-pgi/